One of the most compelling conceptual visions for 5G contrasts the user-driven information-centric operation of previous generations with the industry-driven knowledge-centric nature of the upcoming fifth generation. According to this vision, the evolution from 1G to 4G has been marked by the goal of enhancing the efficiency of human communication — with end results that we are still trying to understand and manage. In contrast, 5G will not be aimed at channeling tweets or instantaneous messages for human-to-human communications, but at transferring actionable knowledge for vertical markets catering to the healthcare, transportation, agriculture, manufacturing, education, automation, service and entertainment industries. In other words, rather than carrying only information, future networks will carry knowledge and skills. Whose knowledge and whose skills will be amplified and shared by the 5G network infrastructure?
Two options are typically invoked: learning machines (AI) and human experts. AI is widely assumed to be able to produce actionable knowledge from large data sets solely for tasks that require systematic, possibly real-time, pattern recognition and search operations. Typical examples pertain the realm of the Internet of Thing, with data acquired by sensors feeding control or diagnostic mechanisms. AI is, however, still very far from replicating the skills of human experts when it comes to “instinctive intelligence“, making multi-faceted judgements based on acquired “wisdom“, innovation, relating to other humans, providing advice, offering arguments, and, more generally, performing complex non-mechanical tasks. Therefore, human experts can complement the knowledge and skills offered by AI. A scenario that is consistently summoned is that of a surgeon operating on a patient remotely thanks to sensors, haptic devices and low-latency communication networks.
By sharing knowledge and skills of AI and human experts, 5G networks are bound to increase the efficiency and productivity of learning machines and top professionals, revolutionizing, e.g., hospitals, transport networks and agriculture. But, as a result, 5G is also likely to become a contributor to the reduction of blue– and white-collar jobs and to the widening income gap between an educated elite and the rest. This effect may be somewhat mitigated if more optimistic visions of a post-capitalist economic system, based on sharing and collaborative commons, will be at least partly realized thanks to the communication substrate brought by 5G.